2013-05-15

[School] Notes on "Sudden and Swift", a presentation on fast motion in zoology

Here are some notes on a presentation I attended yesterday. It's about fast motion in zoology, specifically looking at creatures that use elastic energy to snap at things, like Mantis Shrimp and Trap-jaw ants. It was wonderful. The notes are not too well organised, but I am happy that taking them with org-mode in emacs let me easily export them to an HTML I could pretty simply embed. :D

Sudden and Swift

1 Sudden and Swift: Extreme Movements in Biology, with Sheila Patek

Dr. Sheila Patek, Zoology, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Duke University

  • Mantis Shrimps
  • introduced by teacher of Invertebrate Zoology
    • isopod crustaceans underrepresented in his course, in favour of Mantis Shrimp
  • What is fast?
    • not about cheetahs or diving falcons, which are slower than MS
    • fast in physics, evolutionary history
  • research spectrum
    • basic research (fun and satisfying, building knowledge)
    • applied research
  • Catalina island
    • Rachel Carson, 1950, The Sea Around Us quote
      • "One of the most extraordinarily widespread sounds of the undersea is the crackling, sizzling sound, like dry twigs burning or fat frying, heard near beds of the snapping shrimp... The shrimp are forever clicking the two joints of this claw together."
      • snapping shrimp Alpheus heterochaelis

2 Snapping Shrimp

  • in 2000, they were able to watch at 40,500 frames per second, the snapping of the shrimp, creating a cavitation bubble
    • this is speed, underwater
  • the sound is the cavitation bubble collapsing, not claws snapping
  • how do fungal seeds get off of stem? e.g. jelly fungus Auricularia auricula
    • surface tension catapult propels ballistopores
    • spore + water droplet, theory of surface tension catapult
    • droplet fuses with spore
    • in yeast, 1000,000fps
    • energy from surface tension of water,
    • occurs <10us, 120,000 m/s2, ~300,000 occur within eye blink, average acceleration of missiles
    • related to microdrop technologies
      • engineers did a lot of physics to control inkjet printers
      • math from inkjet printers informed understanding of spore dispersal
  • includes photo of daughter because she wants her to
  • faster things, turtles, jely fish, etc.
  • basic research: how can we apply it? // missed something important here
  • organisms

3 Mantis Shrimp

  • Stomatopoda
  • Odontodactylus scyllarus, peacock mantis shrimp
  • Australia, Indonesia, size of cigar
  • durable snail destroyed with a single blow
  • Sheila works on sound production (not even caring about noise of impact)
    • you can hear the cavitation bubble's collapse, louder than the shell cracking
  • 1.8ms, 150 within a blink, acceleration 105 m/s2
  • mechanics of strike
    • muscle holds latch that prevents hammer from swinging; elastic energy stored
    • the effect is stronger than any muscle contraction known
    • same mechanism used across all 5000 known mantis shrimps (some using different things like spears)
  • Cavitation bubble kind of spreads out
    • mandibles degrade due to them, but molting replaces them
  • impact forces used to be hard to measure, new technology with piezoelectric crystals to record force and hydrophones to also record cavitation
    • measured over 400Newtons
    • two force peaks, limb impact and cavitation impact or second hit
      • had to record at 100,000 fps
      • appendage not hitting twice
      • pairing video with force sensor
      • cavitation bubble here is half as strong as the limb impact (typically, cavitation bubbles can be 2-3x stronger than original impact)
  • compared impacts against horn shark, Horn Shark has longer sustained force, and it's about the same force as a Mantis shrimp, latter working in a few microseconds, former in almost one second
    • but the horn shark is 3kg an the shrimp 40g
    • informs snail shell's evolution
  • Maya deVries looked at Lysiosquillina maculata, spearing strikes, longer reach, slower speeds, no cavitation
    • 25ms, 10 within a blink, 0.3m/s2
    • connected to other shrimps, co-evolved, same mechanism
    • not that fast, don't need to be super fast to hunt; need minimum speeds
      • so no cavitation
    • extreme speeds usually the byproduct of some other goal
      • evolved as early as ~300 million years ago

4 Speed

  • nematocysts, jelly fish, smallest duration action is 0.7us

Duration

Duration (us) Species
10 fungal spores
25 termite jaws
100-300 trap-jaw ants, dogwood spores, bladderworts
1-6ms mantis shrimp

Speed

Speed (m/s) Species
67 trap-jaw ants, termite jaws
58 gyrfalcon dive
28-29 cheetaw sprint

5 Trap-jaw Ants

  • Trap-jaw ant, Odontomachus bauri, trigger hairs, scale bars = 0.5mm for size of mandibles, trigger hairs near mouth bypass the brain and trigger jaws immediately.
  • truly fast movement requires spring+latch, can't just use muscles
  • latches block closing, latches moved away and jaws snap
  • these are slightly faster than things she studied, but they do it in air so it doesn't count
  • they have horrible stingers
  • can be viewed when slowed by 1000x, occur in <0.13ms, 2000 within an eyeblink
  • jump with their jaws, how much force can they produce?
    • each jaw generates 400x body weight of ant
    • Patek et al. 2006, PNAS
  • prey on prey that is defended, they get to knock out prey before being sprayed by acid
  • she studied these ants jumping
  • these jaws have evolved in 4 separate groups, two species have evolve jumping
    • Mystrium, Myrmoterus, Myrmecia, Strumigenys, Anochetus, Acanthognathus, Orectognathus
  • fast?
    • it's about producing high forces in hunting, speed is a by-product
  • basic research?
    • how are they produced? how do they evolve? multipl origins, similar selective regimes
  • applied research
    • strong, lightweight materials, store elastic energy, withstand high impacts; mineralisation strengthening
  • back to Mantis Shrimp

6 Cavitation

  • fast boat propellers were disintegrating
  • fast flow meeting slow flow, you get low pressure, bubbles form and collapse, generating heat 6700°C (sun surface), light, and sound
    • wears away boat propellers
    • wears away shrimp appendages, thank good for molting

7 Conclusions

basic research

  • mechanism used in a lot of different contexts, like Jelly Fish propulsion, poison stuff, etc.

application

  • Ninja Bot, robotic Mantis Shrimp, biomicicry, Susanna Cox; trying to replicate (e.g. to create more durable propellers)
  • why do shrimp hammers not break? Mollusk shells used to be thought of as the most fracture-resistant things, but Mantis Shrimps break them!
    • hammers have impact region and periodic region that help dissipate force
    • hard materials crack easily, but you need hard to generate hard impact
    • harder outer surface, layering dissipates it well, propagates crack energy into other areas to prevent cracking

philosophical

  • can kill things with single blows
  • need solution to not destroy themselves
  • they have tail plates (telson), that they can target instead of the body of another, so that they don't go off killing the rest of their species (found by Jennifer Taylor)
    • telson absorbs energy, like a punching bag

8 Questions

  • what do you think about Canada's refocus on research funding
  • plant exploding scene
  • relationship between water depth and probability of cavitation, harder in lower depths; no smashing mantis shrimp at 100m (close to the max depth for them)
  • are there smashers that don't cavitate?
    • all smashers cavitate
  • spring in Mantis Shrimp; what's the issue?
    • It's exoskeleton
  • energetic costs of this movement?
    • huge ones, you can see their gills moving; they can only do 10 in a row before they stop and you observe their gills flapping, panting
    • prey preference: bigger, more shell but more meat; smaller, less meat but less shell? middle
  • molting, after can they act right away?
    • they start pounding glass at her lab
    • gave her daughter nightmares for 6 months after banging glass in front of her
      • had to devise her antishrimp spray
    • so, eventually they are too soft pre-molting, and they can't stop all together, so instead of actually striking, they display and bluff, and it's effective
  • time to recharge?
    • muscle contraction takes over 100ms
    • now has a neurobiologist studying the neuro basis
    • longer sarcameres: more force to produce, longer to contract
      • smashers have really long ones, take a long time to load
      • spearers have can't contract so much, but reload faster; they hunt faster, evasive pray
  • how to house mantis shrimp
    • urban legend says you can't store them in glass tanks
    • has stored 1000s in glass tanks, and they've never broken them
      • they've broken other things, like Nalgene bottles
    • why?
  • size component to the amount of force in a cavitation bubble
    • doesn't know, but she should have measured it she says
    • guesses there isn't a scaling
  • actually, size of animal => size of force
    • yes!

Author: Richard Schwarting

Created: 2013-05-15 Mi 12:15

Emacs 24.2.1 (Org mode 8.0.2)

Validate XHTML 1.0

Labels

#General #Microblog friends life #Technology gnome music google iaido guelph fedora vegan bugs food school linux technology #GNOME #School jodo gxml #Budo blogger #Photos work nature web happy vala art Flesherton firefox android anime internet open source stress travel home kendo kosmokaryote writing birthday dad science animals computers environment future security canada cookies development photos programming german reading sick snow video winter GUADEC cell phones css fun language learning me people phone picasaweb sleep ta time christmas evolution love movies vegetarianism Toronto gsoc identity society speech vancouver vlogbrothers #Vegan adventure ai birds dreams git google+ gseta happiness libgdata new zealand night responsibility skedge stars tea wind mobile Nintendo baking cake consumerism fedora 17 memories netflix nlp photography quote tablet uoguelph Josh Ritter books bug communication design facebook family humanity javascript magic meaning memory money organisation pidgin rain recipes speechdispatcher sushi tv weather Spain TAing animalia cat chocolate cold cycling death encryption film flight genderguesser halloween health knowledge languages liv mail new years nightmares politics productivity psychology swords the legend of zelda ubuntu video games web development xml xorg youtube Thanksgiving The Frames acer bc blogging busy conversation cooking duolingo emacs emusic fedora 18 galaxy nexus gay rights gitorious gmail japan libxml2 martial arts materialism nerdfighteria privacy rhythmbox software sound space university upgrade valentines wahoo walking Con-G Europe John Green Scott Pilgrim age animal welfare apple autumn bash brain brave breath of fire II calm camera canada day change clothing comments confidence conservation creativity culture dance dataloss djaqua e-mail errors feminism gdom germany goals google reader gtk humour intelligence japanese laundry law light math morning nostalgia ottawa peterborough pets philosophy pie quality research sei do kai shopping spring style summer value village vday vonage water web design website x11 New York alone anime north anxiety argument blog budo buffy business cats computer science concert data loss diy duplicity eating economy education energy english exercise failure fedora 19 file systems flowers freedom french games gdata greyhound growth habits heat history house html ice cream im information joy koryu laptop living lost microsoft moon moving mozilla muffins mystery news nz pain photo php physics pirates pizza play poverty preupgrade progress purple python reality reflection religion rss self serialisation sharing skating social sun synergy tachi uchi testing themes thesis thinking transit turtles veggie challenge velociraptors violin weekend weird yum zellers #Life API Air Canada Empathy Hank Green Hugo Jane Austen Lord of the Rings Nexus One OCUS Sudbury Trick or Eat arboretum audible autonomous automobiles backup beauty bike blogs browsers camping cancer canoeing celebration charity chrome colour community content copyright corporations crafts decay decor depression depth disaster drawing emotion epic equality experience faery fest farmer's market fedora 12 fedora 16 fedora 20 fedora 22 fedup fireworks friend gender ghetto ghosts glib gnome blog gnome shell google talk green hair hobocore hungry icarus interest introspection java jobs last exile luks macbook mail-notification mario meat in vitro mind mom mood moon festival motivation mtp ninjas oh the humanity pagans pants papers past performance perl phones picnics pitivi plastic pride pumpkin pumpkin pie quiet thrill rae spoon receipts rogers rpm seminar sewing simple simplicity sleep deprivation smells soy milk speech dispatcher sports stories story telling strange streamlines swimming telephone temperature texting thoughts thrift stores time management time travel tragedy truth understanding united states urban ecosystems usb veganism voice volunteering webschwerver wild wireless working world yojimbo zoology Avatar: The Last Airbender Blassreiter CIS*2750 CIS*6890 Czech Republic Diablo Dresden Codak Dunedin Dutch Blitz Electric Networked Vehicle Elliott Brood Ender's Game France Fringe GNOME 3 HTC Hayao Miyazaki Mario Kart Montréal Network Manager Newfoundland Ontario Ouran Host Club Richard SVC Samsung Samurai Champloo Santa Claus Studio Ghibli TCAF US academics adb aeroport algonquin amusing animal agriculture apartment automation awkward bad movies banana bats battery beard belladonna beta bicycle book branding breakfast brno bus buses buy nothing day cabin calgary candy cards cars catastrophe celebrate celtic chat cheap cheese childhood china chinese calendar cities clarity clean cleaning clock comics compassion compiler computer conspiracy theorists consumption context convention cookie cool cornerstone cosplay cottage country court creation cthulhu cupcakes curiosity cute dancing dark themes dbus definition democracy despair dinosaurs discomfort dns dodgeball dragon dress dust dystopia earth earth day efficiency eggs elections email enhanced history ethics evil exhausted expectations exploring ext3 ext4 fail fair trade fall fashion favourite feedly feelings ferry focus formal free friendship fruit fudge full moon furniture gaelic game boards garden gardening gee generosity genetics gimp gir gobject good google hangouts google wave government grading gratitude green roofs groups gsec guerilla gardening haircut hakama help homosexuality honesty howl hp human rights humanitarianism humility hypocrisy ice images imaqua instant messaging integration internet explorer jabber jazz jelly bean jokes kernel keyboard knife labs last exile: fam the silver wing laurena lazy letters library libxml livejournal lizzie bennet loneliness loss lovely lyrics maps maturity meditation melancholy metadata microbes microfinancing microwaves moon cake morality mother music concert muso jikiden eishin ryu myth namespaces nasa nerdfighter neural networks nintendo 3ds normal normality notes obsolescence oceans open open souce open standards panasonic paper parties patches peanut butter perception personal perspectives philanthropy plants pleasant politeness potluck preparation problems ptp pulseaudio quidditch racism recreate redundancy relationships relax repairs resizing richard's room roomba roses rsync running sad sadness salsa samurai sanity scary schwarting seasons self-esteem self-navigating car selinux semiformal senility sensitivity sentimental sheep ships silicon motion sleeping in sms social justice software engineering solitude solutions songs soup speed ssh star wars strangers stupid success sunset surreality survival skills suspense sustainability sweet sympathy symphony tardigrades tasks teaching technical communication and research methods test tests thought thrift tim tams time and space tired tools tracker tradition tranquillity transience trees trust tumblr twitter update usability utopia via vihart vlog waffles warmth waste waterloo wave web comic webkit wii wiki winter is coming wizard wonder woods words xmpp yoga youth zoo #Wishlist 1. is anyone reading this? 1602 1984 2. you win a prize! 2014 24fps 3. gimme a call to collect 404 All My Children Andy Griffith Argentina Armstrong House Avatar: The Legend of Korra BarTab Boston Boston Summit Businesses C CIS*6050 Cambridge Christopher Plummer Claymore Creatures Darker than Black David Attenborough Dear Wendy Docking Station Dollhouse Earthbound England Excalibur February Fergus Final Fantasy IX GError GSA Go Hunger Games I believe in a thing called love I'm a wizard IRC Ikea Ireland JRR Tolkien King Arthur MIT Mac OS X Madrid March Massachusetts Matlock McGuinty Melodies of Life Merlin Michael Cera Mother Mother Mr. Tumnus Narnia Neil Gaiman New York Philharmonic Nick and Norah's Infinite Playlist Nintendorks Norns North Korea NotesFromNewYork Olympic OpenShot Orphen Orson Scott Card Oscars PEAP Pete Peterson Planet Fedora Porco Rosso Questionable Content R ROM Rent S SIM Wireless Sauble Beach Selenium Shakespeare Snakes and Lattes Star Trek Steve Grand Stranger Things ThanksLiving The Darkness The Devil is a Part-Timer The Fifth Estate The Guild The Hobbit The Stand Tianjin Tim Hortons Tolkien UK UX VPN Will Grayson Will Grayson Wolves in the Wall WordPerfect Xiki abrt absolutism abuse academia accessibility active activism activity addiction adreama adrift adulthood advertisement advertising air airport express airship ajax al gore alarm clock aldiko alice in wonderland alien alistair summerlee amateur amazon ambience ambition amy winfrey anaconda and imperfection angle angry birds anhosting animation anon anonymity ant apache apology appearances appreciation aqualab arcade architecture arduino arrogance ask assassins assignments association analysis astrid asus eee top asynchronous ati attitude attribution aural abuse authentication authenticity automake automarker avatars awesome b43 backtrack3 backyard bounty bad bagel bandwidth banjo banks barbarians barefoot baseball bathroom beaches beautiful bed bees beetles being belief bellaqua benedict cumberbatch berlin bertrand russell bill gates biofabrication biology biometrics bit rot bitcoin black and white blame blockbuster bloomberg blue board games bohemian bold bon thé place bonds border boredom botany boxing day boy brain scoop brickworks broadcom broccoli browsing bubbles bubbly buildings bunnies burn bus stops butterflies buttons c# c++ cafe calendaring calligraphy camel camera obscura cameras canopy capitalism captivity careless caring cast causality cbc cedar row cello censorship certainty cgi chalk challenger changing locks chaos theory charm cherry blossoms chickadee chickens chivalry choir chopsticks chores christchurch christianity chudan church cijf cinnamon classes clif clorox clorox green works cloud cloud atlas clubs cname coca cola codeine codeviz coincidence coins color comfort commons communism competence competition competitive coughing completeness compliments conference configuration conflicted confusion consciousness consent conservatives conservativism console construction contagion contest contributing convenience corpses cough suppressants coughing coupons courageous crashes crates crayons crazy creative commons criminals crisps criticism crosscanada crowd crtc cry crying cryptic cryptozoology csh cuddles cult currency current tv curse customer service customisation cvs daily grind data data mining databases dating david bowie dconf debate debug symbols debugging delicious design patterns desktop desktop summit destiny detachment dftba diet difficult digimon digital receipts disabilities disappointment discordianism dispute dissection kit distraction diyode dnf doctor who doctors documentation dokuwiki doubt doughnut dpkg drab drano drano prevention dream dreaming drinking drm drowning dryers dtwydt ducks dvds dying dynamic typing ease easter easy ebony jewelwing ebooks ecards economics editors eeetop el paso elder neglect electronic receipts elements elitism ellen page embarrassment emily graslie emptiness empty enchant end of enterprising environmental science symposium eog epiphany eplugin equipment essentialism ether euphoria evoaqua experiment experimenting expertise extensions extortion facades faith falafel familiarity fan fancy fantasy fascism faun favicon fears fedora 11 feed me feedback festival fibonacci fiction fiddler crab field guide field identification figment figures of speech file formats finances fire fish fitness fixing flac flash light flesherton fling flexibility flour flow flying fonts footprints forceps forgottotagit fork fortunate fortune found fragaria frameworks fraud fred penner free time freezing french fries fresh friday friend's wedding frog fspot funding funerals funny fury fuse gargoyles gdb geek geeks gf3 gi gifts gio gjs glass globalnewtgames glory gloves glue gluten gm gmo gnome keyring gnome software go ninja go go transit goat gods goodbye goodfella's google books google wallet gp2x gqe grad graffiti grammar graphing graphviz grass green beaver grey county groceries growing up gtest gtg guts gypsies habit hal halls hard hard drive hard drives hardship hardware harry potter hdtv heart heart break heaven 17 hemlock grove hewlett packard hijinx hiking hoaxes hobbies holidays homelessness homework honey badgers honour horatio hornblower horror hostels hosting hot house of cards hp lovecraft hugs humblebundle humbleness hunting hyperlinking hyrule i am a carpet ibm thinkpad x41 icalendar ice cream sandwich ice rain icthyology ignorant ill image image editing imagination impermanence inadequacy inaturalist inconvenience independence india individuals industry infinity ingrid michaelson inhumanity injuries ink innovation insects instagram installation intel intellectual property interactivity interlocutor internet tv invertabrates io irish irony isolation it it is indigo james bond jedi jikiden joke journalism journey judgement julian assange julie thiel justice kata kayak keys ki-ai killme kim taylor kinder kindness kirby kitchen kiva knights knots kodak koodo kung fu labels landau sacamoto late laundromat led legend lending lenovo lessons letstrace letter writing liberalism liberals libnotify libreoffice librpm lifehacker lilo limericks limits linksys liquid lists live wallpapers livecd liveusb loans local local food local install login london losher lots of hugs mac mini machine learning machine vision madness mae magic school bus magical maintainership majesty malaria malls mantis shrimp marine life marketing marking massages matrices maturation may seminar meat media medicine mel's diner memory leaks mental health meow mercy metacity metaphor methodology mezzo forte micropayments mild mild weather military milk mindhacks minimalism misanthropy miscellany misery misfortune missed the boat missing mlp modelling moisture mold molly parker monitors monologue more cats mosquitoes moss mother's day mounting mouse moxies muffin muffinfilms mundane murder museum mushishi mushroom soup mushrooms musicals mutual funds my slumbering heart mysql nameservers nanowrimo national treasure natural language processing naturalism nausicaa navigating necessity neighbours nervous netgear network new new users newspaper hat next year ninja turtles nodelist nointernet noise noisy nominate non-root norse noses not really dying notebooks notification-daemon novels november fair nuclear war numbers numix obama obligation obliviousness obscure ocz ogg oggenc olap olive omote open formats open music openness openoffice optimisation optimism orcas orchestra oreo oreos org-mode origami oscar otr overheat owen sound package management packagekit packing paint shedding pan pancakes panda parallelism paranoia passport patents patience pattern recognition pdo peace peaceful pen pence pender penguins penmanship perfection pet rocks physical piano pickman's model picnik pidgin plugins pikmin pintsize pipelight pirate festival pizza hut plagiarism planning plans playground playlists plumbing plushies podcast poem poetry points pokemon pomplamoose positions posse post posters postmodernism potatoes potlucks power ppc practise prejudice premier pressure pretty pride and prejudice priorities private processes professionalism projects promise protest proud purchases qt quarantine rad radeon railroad randall munroe raop rats reagan recursion recycling redhat reductionism refactoring refrigerators regret relativism release renew renfrew repetition report resolutions resolve resumes reuse reuters reviews revolution rhino rhps ricola risk road trips roar robots rockwood rot rover rtm ruby day ryu safety sanctuary sand satisfaction savages scary movies scheduling schneier scholarships scooters scp screenshots script seals search secret world of arrietty secrets seitei self-interest self-respect self-sufficiency self-worth semesters senescence sessions setbuilder settlers of catan sftp shame sheepo pistachio sheila patek shell shells sherlock holmes shipping shogun shotwell shoulder bag sigh sim city simafort simpsons sincerity singing sjr skill skunks sky slackware slashdot sliver small smiling snails snowboarding soccer social dance social media socis soft solemn someonesmotherwantstoadoptme song sony sophistication sorbet sorrow sparklers speed river spell spellchecking spelling spies spilt milk splendid splendor splinter spoilers sql squaresville sr ssd sshd stanley park starry night starving steampunk storage strawberries strength structured information struggle stuff stylus suburi sucks sugar super mario super mario land 3d superiority superstition surprise surreal sushi surrender swings systemd systems tabs tachi uchi no kurai tail coats tameshigiri tarot taxes tears technocracy teddy bears tedtalk term termcap terror the duke the fault in our stars the hulk the human league the irregular at magic high school the onion theatre theory thingsidon'twanttodo tim berners-lee tim mcgraw timber timbre timeliness tin tin toaster todo toilets tolerance tonight toomuch touch screen touchpack tour tourniquet toys trac trailer translation travel buddy treestyle view trex triumf triumph trivia trouble tweak twist tx2500 tx2617 typing ugly logos umbrellas un dinaru underwold unemployment universe unlimited blade works updates upgrades uploading urban agriculture urban ecology urchins user experience vagrancy vagrant vague but exciting valadoc validation values vampires vanilla ice variety vegetables velvet burger verb version control vi vinegar violence voip vpnc vulnerable waf wandering wanting war warm weapons web hosting webcomic webcomics webfonts werewolves whales what a wonderful town whatsbetter whic are also lazer powered white spot wifi wii u wikisource will williams wings wisdom wishes wizardry wolf wonderland wordplay world cup world water day writing voice xenophobia xephyr xinput xkcd xpath yahoo yay yyz z-index

Blog Archive

About Me

My photo

I am aeronautical, vanship-style.  I am olympic and mythical.  I rest on my laurels.